37 (4): 734–742. "[4] They later excluded traditional breeding, in vitro fertilization, induction of polyploidy, mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. Follow up studies have since shown that the toxicity levels encountered in the field were not high enough to harm the larvae. Fungi have been engineered with much the same goals. 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As such they are generally considered safer and more efficient than conventional vaccines, although concerns remain over non-target infection, potential side effects and horizontal gene transfer to other viruses. One research focus is to modify Lactobacillus, bacteria that naturally provide some protection against HIV, with genes that will further enhance this protection. A wide variety of organisms have been genetically modified (GM), from animals to plants and microorganisms. 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