Both animal viruses and bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) are able to undergo mating. Polygyny ( / pəˈlɪdʒɪniː /; from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ - poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women. [148], The Parabhava Sutta states that "a man who is not satisfied with one woman and seeks out other women is on the path to decline". This is known as resource defense polygyny and males of the bee species Anthidium manicatum (also known as the European wool carder bee) exhibit this behavior. There is evidence of unregistered polygamous marriages in the UK, performed through religious ceremonies, that are not recognized under UK law. In human sociobiology, the terms have been extended to encompass the formation of relationships such as marriage. Usually the wives have little to no contact with each other and lead separate, individual lives in their own houses, and sometimes in different cities, though they all share the same husband. [78][79] Despite his opposition, he legally has two wives: Tatyana, with whom he has two sons; and Nazgul Tolomusheva, who gave birth for son and daughter. 2nd ed., Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. Such children receive a The males often attract females through marking where they will perch and release air-borne pheromones from the tip of their abdomen to mark and defend individual leaves. [58], Among the Ngwa group in Eastern Nigeria, studies show that 70% of polygynous marriages consist of illiterate men and women, compared to 53% in monogamous marriages. Findings show that the wife order can affect life satisfaction. The official wife was called "big mother" (大媽 dàmā), mother or aunt. One male mating with one female B. Throughout the African polygyny belt stretching from Senegal in the west to Tanzania in the east, as many as a third to a half of married women are in polygynous unions, and polygyny is found especially in West Africa. It was legally abolished for Hindus in India by the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955. Boserup, Ester. [68], Polygyny in South Africa is typically seen among the Muslim community, although polygynous unions overall are not widely practiced in South Africa among all religious and ethnic groups. For example, during the Protestant Reformation, in a document referred to simply as "Der Beichtrat" (or "The Confessional Advice" ),[118] Martin Luther, whose reformation caused a schism in the Western Christian Church leading to the formation of the Lutheran Church, granted the Landgrave Philip of Hesse, who, for many years, had been living "constantly in a state of adultery and fornication",[119] a dispensation to take a second wife. Even the last group may at least in part be genetically polygynous. Another manifestation of mating between viral genomes is multiplicity reactivation (MR). When a cell is mixedly infected by two genetically marked viruses, recombinant virus progeny are often observed indicating that mating interaction had occurred at the DNA level. The polygyny that is allowed in the Quran is for special situations; however, it advises monogamy if a man fears he can't deal justly with them. Taking additional wives was regarded as one of the fundamental indicators of a successfully established man. The verse also emphasizes on transparency, mutual agreement and financial compensation as prerequisites for matrimonial relationship as opposed to prostitution; it says: Also ˹forbidden are˺ married women—except ˹female˺ captives in your possession. It is permissible to be mutually gracious regarding the set dowry. As culture increasingly affects human mating choices, ascertaining what is the 'natural' mating system of the human animal from a zoological perspective becomes increasingly difficult. Fundamentalist Latter-Day Saints' teachings include plural marriage, a form of polygyny first taught by Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. This response appears to be a primitive form of sexual interaction similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation systems that are also associated with species specific DNA transfer between cells leading to homologous recombinational repair of DNA damage. [60] About 14% of Malawi's population is infected with HIV, which causes AIDS, according to official figures. Proposals have been made to re-legalize polygamy in other ex-Soviet Muslim republics, such as Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan.[72]. Polygynous societies have a higher concentration of men investing into methods of mating with women, whereas monogamous men invest more into their families and other related institutions. Most countries that permit polygyny today are Muslim-majority countries . [108] By the first century, both the expense and the practical problems associated with maintaining multiple wives were barriers to the practice, especially for the less wealthy. Mormon fundamentalism believes in the validity of selected fundamental aspects of Mormonism as taught and practiced in the nineteenth century. The third method of DNA transfer is conjugation, in which a plasmid mediates transfer through direct cell contact between cells. Mating and sexual reproduction are widespread among extant eukaryotes. Some of the young polygynous men indicated that they were trapped in polygyny because of the large number of single women who needed and were willing to take them as husbands although they were already married. Customary law, one of the three legal systems in operation in Nigeria (the other two being Nigerian common law and Sharia law) allows for the legal marriage of more than one woman by a single man. These descriptions are idealized, and the social partnerships are often easier to observe than the mating relationships. These include sororal polygyny, in which the co-wives are sisters; and hut polygyny, in which each wife has her own residence and the husband visits them in rotation. p. 260-261. [117], Periodically, Christian reform movements that have aimed at rebuilding Christian doctrine based on the Bible alone (sola scriptura) have at least temporarily accepted polygyny as a Biblical practice. The idea that all property was owned by the husband originated in Europe and was not recognized in Africa. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Plus, I will show you a mnemonic device that will help you choose polygyny or polygamy¸ depending on the subject of your writing.. In the 21st century, several sources have claimed as many as 60,000 fundamentalist Latter-day Saints in the United States,[97][98] with fewer than half of them living in polygamous households. Concubines had a lower status than full wives, generally not being seen in public with their husband and not having rights to decisions in the house. "The Economics of Polygamy". In particular: Sexual conflict occurs between individuals of different sexes that have separate or conflicting requirements for optimal mating success. [25], Despite the expenses of polygynous marriages, men benefit from marrying multiple wives through the economic and social insurance that kinship ties produce. Also, wives share companionship and support with co-wives. Zhirinovsky first proposed to legalize polygyny in 1993, after Kadyrov's declaration that he would introduce an amendment to legalize polygyny for all Russian citizens. This is based on verse 4:3 of Quran which says: If you fear you might fail to give orphan women their ˹due˺ rights ˹if you were to marry them˺, then marry other women of your choice—two, three, or four. This discourages women from entering a polygynous marriage. [58], While polygynous marriages are not legally recognized under the civil marriage laws of Malawi, customary law affords a generous amount of benefits to polygynous unions, ranging from inheritance rights to child custody. [citation needed]. President Kurmanbek Bakiyev is known to oppose legalizing polygyny. "Sexual selection, seminal coagulation and copulatory plug formation in primates". A man with a single wife has less help in cultivation and is likely to have little or no help for felling trees. Harcourt, A. H.; Harvey, P. H.; Larson, S. G.; Short, R.V. In polygynandry, each of the males may assist one female; if all adults help rear all the young, the system is more usually called "communal breeding". "Natural selection and the mating systems of solitary bees." American Scientist (1980): 146-153. 不知道自己有多少枪,不知道自己有多少钱,不知道自己有多少姨太太[citation needed], Chinese men in Hong Kong could practice concubinage by virtue of the Qing Code. Unlike those marriages recognized by Sharia, there is no limit to the number of legal wives allowed under customary law. Proposed explanations for the protective effect of polygyny include the distinctive structure of sexual networks produced by polygyny, the disproportionate recruitment of HIV positive women into marriages with a polygynous husband, and the lower coital frequency in conjugal dyads of polygynous marriages. However, the second wife will usually do the most tiresome work, almost as if she were a servant to the first wife, and will be inferior to the first wife in status. [10], From an evolutionary standpoint, females are more prone to practice monogamy because their reproductive success is based on the resources she is able to acquire through reproduction rather than the quantity of offspring she produces.


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